How can linguistics help teachers? Episode 8

Language is ‘the Mount Everest of subjects’, according to linguistics expert Professor David Crystal (A Little Book of Language, p253). It runs right through our experience as humans, and is naturally cross-curricular. So, Cate asks, what if we put linguistics at the heart of our school curriculum? How could we introduce linguistics in schools and would it help teachers with teaching literacy, or is ‘linguistics’ too abstract for children?

Babies are rap poets from birth

Our instinct to play with language is universal, according to Professor Crystal, and playing is one of the main drivers for learning language in babies. In the podcast he explains that we have three main drivers: understanding, identity and playfulness. The instinct is there from birth, and continues into childhood, with children delighting in word play and having fun with language. So what goes wrong? And can linguistics help us retain this playfulness as we grow?

What grammar should we teach?

Drawing circles around adjectives in school doesn’t necessarily translate into children including more adjectives in their writing. David explains how we need to mirror the children’s language acquisition process when teaching them how to do better writing. We must ‘begin at the beginning,’ and with children this means letting them hear the language we expect them to use first, then giving them time to speak it and have fun with it. Children all have ‘an instinct for eloquence’ and enjoy retelling stories. Do we give them enough time to go through this process of listening, speaking, and reading, before expecting them to use new structures in their writing?

With grammar, jumping straight to the cold intellectual dissection and analysis of words doesn’t mean very much without context and passion. Yes, children need to know the rules but ‘it’s the breaking of rules that’s the fun bit,’ David explains. And what about the dreaded fronted adverbials, I wonder? You’ll have to listen to hear what he has to say about those.

It’s the breaking of rules that’s the fun bit

David Crystal on grammar
Teenage linguistics desk with mobile, pen, and book
What is the future of language as technology changes?
Image credit: Tamarcus Brown

The future of language

In the fast-paced world of modern technology, how is human communication changing? Text messaging and ‘text speak’ have had some bad press, but should we really be worried about our teens texting? In fact, as David explains, the fashion for ‘text speak’ peaked around 2009 and has already died out, with adolescents distancing themselves from it. Why is that? And what of emojis? Listen to hear the discussion about teenagers and their written communication, and what teachers should be doing about it (if anything).

The best texters are the best spellers

David Crystal on ‘text speak’

With all the advances in technology and more opportunities than ever to write, such as blogs, texting, and social media platforms, what role does the teacher have in helping students navigate their way to clear communication? The discussion turns to ‘appropriateness’ versus ‘correctness’, and ideas for classroom practice to encourage children to know what is appropriate for different occasions. It is about building an effective ‘linguistic wardrobe’, as David’s metaphor goes.

Teacher training in linguistics

A common theme emerges when David has spoken to teachers, who often tell him, ‘I have to teach grammar. Where do I start?’ In this podcast, David advocates following the children’s process of language acquisition when studying grammar. ‘How do one year olds do it? You can learn about grammar by following the way they do it, bit by bit.’ So what of the traditional approach of ‘subject-verb-object’ and the naming of parts? Is this approach, in fact, pointless? David argues that yes, it is pointless to approach grammar as separate from meaning.

Grammar has no purpose without reference to meaning

David Crystal on teaching grammar

The exciting thing about grammar, it turns out, is all the places you can go to with it. A bit like driving a car, and David explains why.

Cate and David Crystal at the launch of the LASER initiative at the British Academy.

A different mindset is needed to put language back in the centre of the curriculum, and to put children in the driving seat with their own language acquisition. It’s hard to predict the future of language, but I’d say that with this kind of approach, children might feel more empowered and excited about words and what they can do with them.

Listen to Episode 8 of The Language Revolution Podcast with David Crystal below or on iTunes.

And if you’d like to hear David discussing language and accents with his son, actor Ben Crystal, head over to Episode 7 afterwards.

What’s in an accent? Episode 7

Scouse? Cockney? Received Pronunciation? Do you speak with an accent? Why does our accent change when we speak to someone with a different accent to us? Have British accents always been the same or does the English accent change over time? How do we know what people sounded like in London hundreds of years ago, and what will a London accent sound like in the future?

It was my great pleasure to be able to ask renowned linguist Professor David Crystal and his son, actor, author and producer Ben Crystal, some of these questions for episode 7 of The Language Revolution Podcast. Accents have always intrigued me as at different periods in my life my own accent has been a source of shame, pride, or bemusement. I don’t exactly sound like the people I grew up around, nor the people I went to university with, nor my first teaching colleagues and students. I have collected a bit of each place (Redditch, Oxford, Glasgow), and wound up with a sort of hybrid accent that misbehaves and sometimes sounds more Welsh, or more Scottish, or posher. It just won’t sit still.

Apparently this phenomenon is called accommodation, and as David explains, if you like someone you talk like them. Great news, fellow accent chameleons: we’re not being fake, just friendly! But politicians be warned. It is not always acceptable to slip into the same accent as your interlocutors. 

Ben Crystal and David Crystal in conversation about accents.
Does an accent pass from parent to child?

What kind of accent did Shakespeare have?

Since I first heard David and Ben talking about the accent of Shakespeare’s London, original pronunciation or OP, at Cheltenham Literature Festival a few years ago, I’ve been fascinated by the way it opens up the plays and sonnets in new ways to me, and to audiences around the world. I also wanted to know how they know what Shakespeare sounded like. How did they make this linguistic time machine and travel back 400 years to declare, with 80-90% accuracy, what Elizabethan accents were like? Their answer is a fascinating insight into what historical linguistics is, and as an added bonus David does his ‘party trick’ of speaking in Old English, Middle English and Early Modern English, like a true linguistic time-traveller.

What is the point of accents though? Did cavemen have accents? Indeed they did, and accents served quite an important purpose in protecting our ancestors from enemies or intruders to the cave. We can still observe this in linguistically diverse cities (rather than caves) today, as we explore in the podcast.

Sometimes accents are a source of amusement for one group at the expense of another. Have we always told jokes that mock (not always that gently) a particular accent? Apparently we have, and even Shakespeare did it. Listen to find out which accent Shakespeare mocked the most often!

Accent of the future

Then on to the future. Will English accents eventually merge into one ‘standard’ accent? How did Received Pronunciation arise and how did it gain so much momentum around the world? Will teenagers be disadvantaged if they speak in a non-standard variation of English, and will adults ever keep up with teenagers’ accents?

Come and join us (and some seagulls flying past us on the coast of Wales) as I talk about talking with David and Ben Crystal.

This is the second episode in a three-part series with Ben and David Crystal. Listen to Ben talking in more depth about Shakespeare and oracy in Episode 6.

Public speaking and Shakespeare: Episode 6

If Shakespeare were alive today, would he be a public speaking coach helping business leaders and professionals ‘talk like TED’? Certainly the art of public speaking and speaking with confidence are subjects that he could advise on. It’s not uncommon to find entrepreneurs who experience fear of public speaking or anxiety about speaking in front of an audience. In the sixth episode of The Language Revolution Podcast, Cate talks to actor, author and producer Ben Crystal about oracy and the art of speaking in public, and whether the works of Shakespeare could be a route into helping us reconnect with the very human activity of storytelling and speaking to each other from the heart.

Let’s talk about talking!

Black and white photograph of Ben Crystal, Shakespeare and public speaking expert, standing next to a brick wall with vintage Green Street sign.
Episode 6 guest Ben Crystal, actor, author, producer. Often a bit Shakespeare-y.

Where do we even begin to find the words to express our thoughts and opinions, let alone our feelings, about the subjects we care about? Should public speaking be taught in schools? With budget cuts and the arts in general being slowly squeezed out of the curriculum, there are fewer opportunities for children to stand up and speak from the heart, and this leads to adults who are subject experts feeling inhibited when we need to explain our findings, or declare our feelings, to an audience large or small.

Whether that is an entrepreneur explaining a change of direction to their team, or a scientist explaining vital research findings to an audience of non-scientists, we need to be able to find the words to bring people with us on the journey, to create empathy through storytelling so that not only can our audience hear our words, they can relate to the feelings behind them. The speaker is not hiding behind a lectern and notes, but taking the audience with them.

For many, this moment of speaking aloud in front of an audience can feel, as Ben explains, like we are standing on a cliff edge, getting ready to jump. We have a physiological reaction to speaking, testified by our sweaty palms, dry mouth, and sudden need to visit the nearest bathroom. It takes a lot of practice to feel comfortable standing up and speaking, and having the opportunity to practice in a safe environment when we are young might make for a much happier generation of adults. A lack of space for self expression leads to increased mental health problems as we ‘bottle up’ our feelings. Oracy is a skill for life, both professional and personal, but how can we encourage schools to prioritise it when there is so much competing demand for timetable space and budget constrictions?

Are we losing touch?

The world would be a different place if we started earlier with genuinely talking and listening to each other. We discuss what the effect of talking to each other online or through texting might be having on people – are we at risk of losing out on making true connections if we chat in a chat room, rather than a physical common room? Ben’s experience of working with younger actors suggests that our emotional repertoire is at risk of being limited by lack of experience in face-to-face communication and, coupled with the lack of oracy in education, young actors may lack the weaponry too. Has ‘emoji acting’ started to seep into our theatres?

Can Shakespeare help us?

Cate posits that Shakespeare might be a route into learning to speak to each other from the heart, and in the second half of this episode we explore how Ben got into acting and producing Shakespeare plays and why he has spent the last decade peeling back the layers of the theatrical onion to discover the original practices of Elizabethan theatre.

With his father, Professor David Crystal, Ben has worked on reconstructing the original pronunciation (OP) of Shakespeare’s London, and we discuss how performing and speaking Shakespeare’s lines in OP can really open up the plays in new ways, and to new audiences who might otherwise feel alienated from big words like ‘Shakespeare’ and ‘iambic pentameter’. Shakespeare has been claimed by ‘Literature with a capital L,’ leaving generations of children feeling uncomfortable in classrooms with Shakespeare, as if they do not have permission to speak his words. Is it time to reclaim Shakespeare from the few, and how do we do it?

‘Your voice is the right voice for Shakespeare’ – Ben Crystal

Ben is quite clear that, ‘Your voice is the right voice for Shakespeare’ and by tuning Shakespeare’s language back a few hundred years, removing the influence of Received Pronunciation productions and Literature, it’s as if you’re tuning in a radio correctly and getting rid of the ‘fuzziness’, hearing the plays as they are supposed to be heard.

Double page image of the First Folio of Shakespeare's plays, with engraving of William Shakespeare.
First Folio of Shakespeare’s plays, published in 1623.

What effect does original pronunciation have on the actors? Well, Ben explains how it changes how the actors move, how they use their voices, and even how they feel and access the emotions of the characters they are playing. OP has been known to change the overall performance time because it is faster, and perhaps more dynamic than declaiming the lines in RP.

Do we need a time machine?

Ben describes the fascinating journey that OP takes you on as an ensemble of actors, but does this mean that we should be focusing on performing plays or exploring the works of Shakespeare only in OP in our classrooms? Is original pronunciation and practice a time machine or bridge back to the past to help students cross over several centuries? Can OP make the plays ‘more accessible’? How does working with OP crack open the plays in new and interesting ways, in particular making sense of famously enigmatic speeches in Hamlet that have puzzled many an actor or director?

Ultimately, is Shakespeare the answer to our ever-increasing aversion to speaking in public, which is at odds with our human predisposition to feel empathy (as proven by the discovery of mirror neurons, of which more in the podcast) and to connect with each other through oral tradition?

Because talking and storytelling are, after all, just what humans do.

Why do humans have an emotional and social predisposition to learn to speak? Listen to Episode 5 of The Language Revolution Podcast with psychologist and language acquisition expert Dr Katerina Draper to explore the subject in more detail.

Listen to Episode 6 of The Language Revolution Podcast to hear Ben Crystal talking about talking:

Raising Bilingual Children: Episode 5

Is there a recipe for raising bilingual children? In Episode 5 of The Language Revolution Podcast we discuss the prevalent myths around bilingualism, such as whether children will get confused learning two or more languages. We explore different methods of introducing languages at home even if parents are not themselves multilingual. What role does language acquisition have to play in a child’s overall development? And can technology be a useful part of the process? 

Let’s talk about talking!

Reading book parent and child
Reading together is an excellent way to learn languages.
Photo credit: Picsea on Unsplash.

Raising bilingual children

Not only is Dr Kat Draper (Kantartzis) a senior lecturer in psychology at the University of Gloucestershire, she grew up speaking Greek and English and is now raising her family with both languages. We discuss whether there is a ‘right way’ to introducing our babies and toddlers to languages, or whether sticking to a strict One Parent, One Language method is essential for raising multilingual children. In Episode 4 we explored how children learn to speak. Catch up here if you haven’t listened to part one of our discussion yet.

Interaction

Kat explains that interaction is the key to learning languages, and we discuss how we can harness the opportunities offered by technology (such as videos and apps) when raising our children with languages. It is important to label and reestablish vocabulary learned from TV shows, for example, when we see a word we have learned in a new context such as a book or in daily life.

Two toddlers playing with tablet.
Can technology help our little ones learn languages?
Photo credit: Jelleke Vanooteghem on Unsplash.

Multilingual myths

There are many myths about multilingualism, and we discuss whether it is problematic to mix up languages when speaking to children. This might be when one parent speaks two languages or when we mix our languages within sentences or even words. Is this ‘normal’?

Non-native speakers

And what about parents who would like raise a bilingual child in a monolingual household? How can parents support language acquisition and create a language-rich environment at home, including a new language for everyone? We look at the top methods for raising bilingual children, even for parents who are not fluent in a second language. Sometimes parents worry about making mistakes, especially if they are not a native speaker, and if this is you then do listen and see why making mistakes is part of the learning process. Being comfortable with making mistakes is good for our children to see too!

Playing with languages

Kat advocates playing with languages and having fun in the process. We chat about animals noises and why sound symbolism and onomatopoeia could be a helpful route into learning a language for young children.

Child playing with animals and other toys.
Introduce languages in every day play with animals, shapes, role play and books.
Photo credit: Shitoa Yuri on Unsplash.

‘Home languages’

Finally, we talk about families who have moved to the UK and who are learning English or helping their children learn English as an additional language (EAL). You may hear negative advice about stopping speaking your native tongue in order to focus on learning English. Is it better to speak English or continue speaking your usual language at home?

Language acquisition is important, but it is only one part of the jigsaw of child development. Listen to Episode 5 and discover how to create a balanced approach to raising bilingual children.

Episode 4: how do we learn to speak?

Talking. It’s easy right? But how does a baby learn to speak? What are the stages? And how can parents support the process of language acquisition? In this fourth episode of The Language Revolution Podcast, I talk to Dr Katerina Kantartzis about tuning into a baby’s conversational cues, what is ‘normal’ and signs to look out for in speech development, why singing is so special to humans, and whether or not you can stop humans from communicating. 

Let’s talk about talking!

Black and white photo mother and new baby
Image credit: Kelly Sikkema on unsplash.com

What can you expect from Episode 4 of The Language Revolution Podcast?

The whole process of learning to speak is shrouded in mystery, and science is only just beginning to untangle the magical process of language acquisition. We’ve always been fascinated by it though, and no wonder: how do the sounds coming out of our mouths signify something that another human can understand? It’s amazing! No surprise that songs and stories have us enthralled from birth.

In this episode, I talk to Dr Katerina Kantarzis, a senior lecturer in psychology at the University of Gloucestershire, about the sensitive periods in the language acquisition process, and how parents can encourage and support their child to help them learn to speak. We look at the cues babies make and how parents can tune into them.

We also look at what to do if you think the process isn’t working – where to find support if you’re worried about your baby’s language development.

TV chefs and tantrums!

Finally, after deciding that toddlers are always right and that parenting is much like being a TV chef, we discuss what would happen if we did not interact with our children. Can you stop humans from communicating?

Find out by clicking the link below or downloading the podcast on iTunes, Podbean or your favourite podcast provider.

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The Language Revolution Podcast: Episode 4

And if you haven’t already listened, you might be interested in the previous episodes of the podcast where I talk to Dr Thomas Bak about the neuroscience behind learning languages, and why the UK needs to change our approach to learning them.

The Language Revolution Podcast: Episode 2

In this episode of The Language Revolution Podcast, I ask Thomas Bak about the perfect age to learn languages. Is it ever too late to start? Can you lose your childhood accent? How does learning languages improve your brain health? Should the NHS prescribe languages to older adults to delay dementia? What if you already have dementia, is it too late to learn languages then?

Let’s talk about talking!

What can you expect from this episode?

We might assume that as we get older it becomes ever increasingly difficult to learn languages. Perhaps you have heard that the ‘critical window’ for learning languages closes when we are teenagers, or even earlier. Here we examine different aspects of language acquisition (sounds, grammar and vocabulary) individually, and look at whether there is an ideal age to learn each. To find out how we learn, process and store languages, listen to episode one first.

We go on to discuss the health benefits of learning languages in later life. Did you know that being bilingual doubles your chances of a full cognitive recovery within the first year after suffering a stroke? Pretty amazing stats. We also discuss how the process of learning languages can delay dementia symptoms and improve brain health as part of a healthy retirement lifestyle. If you are thinking about taking up languages when you retire, this could be just the motivation you are seeking!

Ever wondered whether doing Sudoku or crossword puzzles, or learning a musical instrument, has the same benefits as learning a language? Is it worth the effort of trying to remember some basic Italian when you are tired and finding it difficult? Take inspiration from Joseph Conrad, Mary Hobson and Samuel Beckett, or closer to home, look to your own children and grandchildren and set a good example of how grown-ups can learn languages too.

Listen to episode two of The Language Revolution Podcast now:

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The Language Revolution Podcast: Episode 2

The Language Revolution Podcast: How we learn languages

Do you say ‘The Language Revolution Podcast’ or podcarst? I have no idea which one is more ‘me’ and so I sought advice about how we learn to speak from neuroscientist Thomas Bak, from Edinburgh University.

Let’s talk about talking!

This the first episode of The Language Revolution podcast, and part one of a three-part series where we discuss everything about languages from how we learn new words, to linguistic exogamy!

Is it normal to speak more than one language? Will we feel confused? Can our brains cope with storing more than one language, and if so, how do they manage to juggle them?

As a languages teacher and co-founder of Babel Babies, I am fascinated by how something as simple as speaking has got people into such a pickle. The UK has a rich multilingual tapestry, woven with our 14 indigenous languages (go on, have a go at naming them in the comments below!) and many more language threads that have come to our shores with people from all over the world, and yet we have a reputation of shying away from learning new languages.

I think it’s high-time we faced the issues we have about learning languages head-on and talked about where our feelings of fear, embarrassment, and even resentment at the suggestion that English speakers should learn a new language come from.

It’s time for a language revolution, n’est-ce pas?

Listen to episode one of The Language Revolution Podcast now:

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The Language Revolution Podcast: Episode 1